Basic Vietnamese

Vietnamese Tones, Pronunciation and Alphabet

Tones

There are six tones in Vietnamese, each of which is represented by a different diacritical mark. Depending on the tones, the word “ma” can mean ghost, mother, which/but, tomb, horse or rise seedling. The six tones are:

Mid tone: produced at the relative middle of your voice range. No tone mark is used. (ma = ghost)
High-rising tone: begins high and rises sharply. (má = mother)
Low- falling tone: begins low and falls lower. (mà = but)
Low-rising tone: begins low, dips lower, then rises sharply. (mả = tomb)
High-broken tone: begins above middle, dips, then rises sharply. (mã = horse)
Low-broken tone: begins low then falls sharply. (mạ = rice seedling)
 
Vietnamese Alphabet

a   ă   â   b   c   d   đ   e   ê   g   h   i   k   l    m   n   o   ô   ơ   p   q   r    s   t   u   ư   v   x   y

Pronunciation

a- like a in part    
 
ă- like u in cup, cut   
 
â- like  (?)
 
b- like b
 
c,k- like k   
 
d- like z in zero   
 
đ- like d    
 
e- like e in lend    
 
ê- like ai in plain   
 
g- like g in gain   
 
h- like h in house   
 
i,y- like e in me   
 
l- like l in live    
 
m- like m    
 
n- like n   
 
o- like o in core    
 
ô- like oh    
 
ơ- like in nerd   
 
p- like p    
 
qu- like q   
 
r- like r in really   
 
s- like sh in she   
 
t- like t in total    
 
u- like oo in cool   
 
ư- like u in huh  
 
v- like v   
 
x- like s in so

Others

gi- as z in north or y in south         ng- like the -nga- in long ago        nh- like ni in opinion                      ph- like f   
tr- as ch in north and tr in south     th- like th in thanks       
ch- like ch in chew
Bản in