1. Co Lao ethnic group
Co Lao lives concentrated in the districts of Dong Van and Hoang Su Phi under Ha Giang province. Economy mainly is till the field with rice and corn, fields is in adjacent to rocks, part living in Hoang Su Phi and knowing to make wet field and land mountain field; in addition, there are also a number of crafts such as carpentry, weaving.
The village of Co Lao in the high peaks, each about 15-20 roofs, roofs are near each other but it keeps off some things such as: the following roof are not looking at front roof’s back; soil house usually consists three spaces, animal shed is layout in front of the main house. Women wear the same type of shirt with Nung’s, Giay’s shirt but longer than knee. Shirt is decorated with colored cloth on chest, sleeves. Formerly, White Co Lao, Green Co lao wear more short-sleeved shirt outside long shirt to show off the white cloth covering on the internal sleeves, legs wrapped leggings. The marriage practice different among groups. Green Co Lao groom wear long green, rolling red towel around bodies. The bride arrives at the gate, the bridegroom’s family must have a bun to sinciput top bun and want to step over the gate, must break a bowl, a wooden ladle available before the gate. Co Lao bride only sleeps at her husband's house on the bride meeting night. How to pull her or rob wife as the Hmong still occurs. About burial, the funeral holds burial rites twice: the funeral and expiatory mass ceremonies. Red Co Lao people have traditions arrange stone around grave, every 10 years to put a stone circle. The stone circle is covered soil; the top is arranged more stone circle again. Co Lao people worship ancestor, worship god of the earth, god of field symbolized by a strange stone placed on the highest rocks in the field.
2. La Chi ethnic group
La Chi ethnic group lives mainly in the districts of Bac Quang, Hoang Su Phi, Xin Man under Ha Giang and Bac Ha district, Muong Khuong district in Lao Cai province. La Chi is good at breaking fresh ground and terracing, planting rice.
The village settles the east to 50-60 families, home made as style half of stilt house, half of soil house, the stilt house has three living spaces, altar is placed at the largest space, the soil house is kitchen. Men dress in five bodies, ing button is at the right armpit, the hair is long over the shoulder, wearing ready-to-wear turban. Women wear pants, a few also wear skirts, traditional dress is four-body dress split in the middle, embroidered bibs, cloth belts, commonly wore headgear nearly 3 meters long. Dark indigo is very popular. Women wear bracelets, ear rings, men only wear bracelets. receiving foster parents for infants is common, children crying much is considered the names to be unsuitable, must conjure up to find family properly to make foster for children name. It is worshipped on the holidays, according to tradition, parents are buried on the date when their children remember all their life without seeding or borrowing on date. On holidays, Tet, boys and girls get used to sing, play 3 wire musical instrument, lips musical instrument, drums, gongs, are commonly used.
3. La Ha ethnic group
La Ha resides mainly in the districts of Lao Cai and Son La provinces. La Ha people started working in the wet fields, but the economic type is still remaining milpa, hunting and gathering.
La Ha people stay in the stilt house, the structure according to two types: type from 1-3 years the groups live shifting cultivation of wandering hilltribes. Type of this house, whose two gables’ roof is covered in an oval type, elongated two sides as jaw of pigs. longtime housing of residential team is semi-settled, semi-settled agriculture or settled and settled agriculture; these two types with bent gable roof like shell-shaped type as the Black Thai. La Ha's family follows patriarchy, not only their children bear father’s surname but also his wife bore his surname, with marriage money to show their gratitude towards their parents, but boys and girls are free to learn, there is no compulsion of parents. After espousal, if the girl’s family does not return, the betel and areca, the son starts working for her parents, from 4-8 years. Living at her in laws’ ends, it begins formal wedding ceremony (made rice,wine). After this wedding, the bride is welcomed to her husband home, change her surname according to her husband and not go back in with her parents anymore though her husband died. The La Ha worship in the house time as the Thais. Not take green vegetables, green leaves, blue effects and fresh meat on the family's door, but to bring these things into the living room’s door. When there is person dead, all the above things are cancelled and do vice versa. The La Ha sing, write poetry quite fluently in Thai. Two typical dances are penis (Lin ga) and dance bow and sword.
4. Pu Peo ethnic group
Pu Peo people get used to living in the districts of Dong Van, Meo Vac, Yen Ninh under Ha Giang province. Formerly they stay in house with no upstairs, Pu Peo people are specialized in the ground now. The Pu Peo specialize in planting corn and beans on the field with high technology, such as plowing fields, putting down fertilizers and intercropping pillow. Some plant rice on the terraces, using cattle, cow as traction. Some do tile, carpentry.
Pu Peo’s dresses and women's clothes are very excellent, only used colored fabric covering techniques. Wearing two layers of clothing, the outside coat is split chest part, without button around fringe is decorated covered by decorative cloth of different colors arranged in a triangle, square or rhombic shape; cuffs edged other fabric colors. Short coat is worn inside, buttoning to the left armpit is also decorated with colored cloth like outer shirt. Woman's hair is rolled forehead, pined back with a wooden comb, covered towel square.
Marriage has many steps: bride meeting date, bridesmaids must carry on the bride out of gate to follow bridegroom’s family. In ancestral feast, food is put on basket, both the bride and bridegroom eat with the fingers. When someone dies, it holds ghost ceremony and funeral ceremony or as known dry ghost. Traditional belief is ancestor worship, the altar has the small glazed terra-cotta pot symbolized for worshipped subject, at least 3 for 3 lives. Singing the wedding between the bridegroom’s family and bride’s family for 3-4 hours becomes a very unique art. Wedding is an occasion for boys, girls to have funny singing.